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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

今年临近尾声之际,欧洲央行在12月3日投票削减其存款利率至负0.3%,并扩大资产购买,使量化宽松计划的规模达到1.46万亿欧元。此举出炉十几天后,美联储(Federal Reserve)自2006年以来首次提高利率,突显大西洋两岸正在推行的货币政策截然不同。

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Warm greetings and best wishes for happiness and good luck in the coming year.
John Authers
['tnl]

单词deprivation 联想记忆:
Fudan University and Peking University, two prestigious comprehensive universities in China, were ranked fourth and sixth on the salary ranking, while the remaining of the top 20 were dominated by finance/economics and science/technology schools.
“Yao represents the new wave of wealth creation by financial investments in China,” said Rupert Hoogewerf, who compiles the annual list.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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税:每年大约41684美元(约26.7万元)
2016年空前的海外收购潮消耗了中国大量外汇储备,随后监管部门开始严格限制境外交易。今年8月,中国政府出台了新框架,鼓励那些符合北京战略重点的交易,并限制涉及娱乐、体育和豪宅等方面的交易。
It was addressed to Clark C Moore, who has since changed his name to Muhammad Siddeeq, making it hard to trace him.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Shanghai is the most popular destination for new job seekers, followed by Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Beijing. Provincial capitals cities in central and western regions are also among the top choices for the new graduates.
担忧、紧张、抑郁和愤怒等负面情绪更常在D型人格的人身上体现。一件常常被他人忽视的小事就可能让D型人格的人烦恼,甚至会破坏他的心情。
尽管给股东的分红正在缩水,但这些银行的分红数额仍占据中国所有上市企业分红总额的一半。去年,这16家银行报告的盈利占据上市公司盈利总额的52%。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 不过,日本央行(BoJ)仍决定不加大货币政策刺激力度。该行指出,工业产出是日本经济疲软的领域之一。当然,就业市场等日本经济的其他领域,表现要好得多。
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  • The 'Divergent' Star Shailene Woodley top the list of most beautiful women of 2015. The young Hollywood star found breakthrough success in The Descendants (2011). She was considered one of the “55 Faces of the Future” by Nylon Magazine's Young Hollywood Issue.
    谎言3:是的,这挺有道理的。说谎原因:方案二会让我显得毫无头绪。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 儿童家具大品牌赢口碑 家长更关注家具安全, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

原材料数量锐减 红木家具业“洗牌期”或加快

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

福建:家居行业尝试新型营销方式

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • It was Somerset Maugham who said the French Riviera is “a sunny place for shady people” – and looking around at all the 'models' in the hotel lobbies and the men in dark sunglasses who seemed to know them, I knew what he meant. Behind the festival's shiny facade, there is an unseemly side – and beneath the azure waters, a polluted mess. The French diver and environmentalist Laurent Lombard's video of the Cannes seabed strewn with waste and debris went viral before the festival began. We were assured there was no danger to swimmers, and the mayor had it cleaned up according to the Daily Mail – but the Med had certainly lost some of its sparkle.
    n. 元素,成分,组成部分,(复数)恶劣天气
  • According to the report, students from prestigious universities were less willing to start businesses, likely because of high opportunity cost.
    Lawrence’s 2016 earnings dropped 11.5 percent from her 2015 total of $52 million. Forbes will release its list of the world’s highest-paid actors on Thursday. Last year Robert Downey Jr. topped the list with an estimated $80 million.
    4. "The Big Bang Theory" (3.4 million)
    New residential property prices in China grew faster in October despite a slew of restrictions on purchases,
    朱克斯提醒,我们目前正处于第四次超级大泡沫之中,它是美联储在保守经济学兴起以来的30年时间里吹起来的。他将这个泡沫称为“暂时没有名字的泡沫”(Bubble With No Name Yet)。好,大家来给这个新泡沫命名吧。但不管你叫它什么,都要快点起名,因为它马上就要爆了,就像过去30年相继破灭的亚洲泡沫、互联网泡沫和信贷泡沫一样。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 南康家具业:一群打工者催生的大产业
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 郭安:2020年南昌光谷LED照明将完成1000亿目标

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

《大汉情缘之云中歌》改编自桐华网络小说《云中歌》。它以西汉时期(公元前206年-公元220年)为背景,讲诉了名为云歌的女子、贵族公子孟珏和汉昭帝刘弗陵之间的传奇爱情。该剧和《琅琊榜》同月播出,风头却几乎被《琅琊榜》完全盖过。它也因历史漏洞广受诟病。对某些观众而言,杨颖的颜值恐怕是该剧吸引他们的唯一亮点。
Under the Skin is just so visually free and uninhibited that there is an intense dark, destructive sexiness in everything about it – quite apart from the hilarious, bizarre, mesmeric eroticism of the film itself. It is a work of subcutaneous potency. It gets under your skin.
37| “Anomalisa” (Charlie Kaufman/Duke Johnson)|
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● “一男子持枪自拍时不小心把自己JJ射了”
课程安排:5个住校学习时间段,不住校时在线学习
1.Under no circumstances should you ask your taxi driver how excited he is about having the Olympics in London this summer. It's not that he will be reluctant or embarrassed to offer a personal opinion on the matter. That is not the problem at all.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 正佳定制家居馆逾半品牌撤离 高端消费者不足
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 201107/145539.shtml
    但是更让人兴奋的是,魔术师约翰逊是一个人脉广泛且备受尊敬的名人堂球员,他看起来也能知人善任,新经理罗布-佩林卡是一个老谋深算的交易者,他在联盟人脉也很广。
  • Another slowdown in food prices pulled Chinese inflation lower in October, according to the National Bureau of Statistics.
    WTF.1: Next Level of Working Moms
  • Homing in on a brand that excels at making the kind of vehicle you’re looking for is an efficient way to focus your shopping and find the best car for you. The 2016 U.S. News Best Vehicle Brand awards recognize the best brands in four categories: Cars, SUVs, Trucks and Luxury.
    差不多人人都知道谷歌的分析工具Google Analytics,但是你是否用过谷歌的网站管理员工具(Google Webmaster Tools)?作为一名营销人员,我认为谷歌的网站管理工具是我用过的最重要的免费工具之一。你肯定想让自己公司的名字出现在谷歌搜索结果之中,对吧?那么为什么不听听谷歌网站管理员工具教给你的诀窍呢?
  • In 2016, 1,576 foreigners became permanent Chinese residents, an increase of 163% on the previous year, according the Ministry of Public Security.
    201512/415505.shtmlBritish business schools shine in the 2015 Financial Times ranking of European institutions. Not only has London Business School (LBS) kept its crown as the best business school in Europe but three other schools in Britain have achieved the biggest rises since last year.
    3.Good problem solver
  • Length of program: 13 to 15 months
    However, the state is also wary of the fast growth in online finance, which is largely unregulated and the risks of systemic crises may be high. Since 2007, 370 P2P lending platforms have failed in China, of which 270 failed in the past year, according to research by Morgan Stanley and Wangdaizhijia, a Chinese research group.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 智能家居缺乏统一标准成发展瓶颈 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

涂料市场“水进油退” 调查显示八成网友青睐“水漆”

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

天津推动住房租赁市场发展 加强企业自持租赁住房管理

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

东莞家具厂转型尝试:把家具店开进咖啡馆

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

2015年智能家居大事记 合纵连横成主旋律

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • vi. 抱怨,悲叹,控诉
  • 家具建材“跨界整合”对家具企业的影响如何?

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The EU filed just 12 anti-dumping cases in 2015, two less than the year before.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 如果2017年是假新闻之年,那么2018年将成为假数据之年。就像假新闻以多种不同形式出现一样——既有被美国总统称为假新闻的真新闻,也有在社交媒体上吸引众多观众的无稽之谈——假数据也是如此。
    3. Will Guo Jingjing, China's diving queen, get married in 2010?
    其他的欧洲国家生活成本在增长,排名有进步。伦敦上升了5个名次,并且进入前十。
  • The 25 most common passwords have been released by Splashdata which makes password management applications.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 尽管随着租赁成本的上升和失业率的下降,薪酬最终会会上升;商人们将会在招聘劳动力上付出更多的成本而且还有可能由于缺乏员工以增加产量而导致销售量下降的风险。
  • 房贷新政银行心中有账:九折才保本七折不可能
  • “The auction market is extremely selective,” said Henry Pettifer, the head of old master paintings at Christie’s, whose sale total had been dented by a 15th-century Flemish Madonna and child by Hans Memling that the auction house had sold privately for more than 3.5 million and had withdrawn from the sale. “The availability of fresh material is limited,” he added, alluding to how few museum-quality works are in private hands.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 莱蒙国际133亿出售深圳、杭州等8项目
  • Household substance abuse
  • 地产中介责任不可推卸 监管加码加速洗牌
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

AI创新引领建筑装饰行业迈入人工智能时代

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 一季度北京仓储物流市场租金环比上升,改造型物业受投资市场关注
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 家居建材企业掌握品牌价值变革是品牌塑造的重点
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

90%的学生认为他们大学在创业方面的指导将有助于他们将来的事业。此外,他们还对鼓励创业的政策表示赞赏。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

This assumes, of course, that Apple can find a way to build a $330 iPhone with cheaper parts, a slower processor, a lower resolution screen and perhaps a plastic body, thatisn't, in the phrase Tim Cook used at a Goldman Sachs conference last week, "a crappy product."
Mr Ravenscroft believes he would have had a narrower perspective if he had become a management consultant. Teaching also helped him develop a willingness to take risks — the hard way. “If you stand in front of 30 teenagers who won’t hold back when you’re doing something wrong it makes you willing to try things.”
改革就是要解放和发展生产力,调动广大人民的积极性,让群众得到实惠,为政之要就是要舍小利、顾大义、顺民心。
许多管理者提到了一些极其失礼的情况。求职者:
另一个会造成失业的常见的习惯就是过度沉溺于社交媒体。有些公司采取了相应的措施来监控或限制员工使用社交媒体。有些公司甚至完全屏蔽掉这些网站。所以注意了花太多的时间在社交媒体或者与工作无关的网站上可能会让你饭碗不保哦!
经济运行缓中趋稳、稳中向好;
The film is shot to mark the tenth anniversary of the television series, first released in 2005.
continuous
今年上榜的中国品牌有36个,其中8个进入前100名,包括国家电网(36)、中国工商银行(40)、腾讯(43)、央视(62)、海尔(76)、中国移动(79)、华为(81)和联想(90)。
一位新浪微博网友写道:“不敢相信这么多医生都在论文中造假。病人还能相信他们可以帮人治病吗?”

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

一季度居民收入榜:9省份跑赢全国 上海18704元居首

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 泰勒斯威夫特被评为2012年最慈善明星。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • To SKN Company in Russia for exploding old Russian ammunition and creating diamonds. Now that`s recycling!
  • 自如将全面布局成都整栋公寓市场
  • n. 能力,容量,容积; 资格,职位
  • 2018年中国绿色建筑占有率将增至28%
  • “This growth is further backed by Video Editing making an appearance at number 3 on the list with a 19% increase,” the report states, “as video content becomes one of the initial draws and call to actions for most customer-focused websites. Heavy video marketing through social media also increases this demand.”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 54个城市上周新房签约量 刷新近半年新低
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The strength of Kellogg/HKUST is the quality of its participants.
  • 节目17 小品《你摊上事儿了》,秦海璐 王茜华 孙涛 方清平

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

多场绿建会议在沪举行 杭萧钢构积极赴会共促行业发展

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